This short learning module is about homologous proteins: Proteins of different species that fulfill the same function. the module thereby hooks into the theme of evolution. Students can work individually on this module by using the student manual.


This learning module is concentric in design. This means that the module can be used in different manners. On the one hand the module can be used in the beginning of the theme cell transport. The gray questions are then skipped and it possible to let the students answer them at the end of the theme. On the other hand the gray questions can be used as kind of bonus. Students that appreciate the subject or understand the theme want some more challenge.


For this module some prior knowledge about DNA, protein synthesis and evolution is needed.


A evolutionary tree can be easily made in two steps:

Step 1: combine different amino acid sequences to an alignment. 1. Go to: ebi.ac.uk

2. Cut and paste the complete document in the appendix of the student guide in the textbox.

3. Press submit (bleu/green bottom).

4. Wait until the job is done.

5. By press show colors you can see the four different amino acids better in the different sequences.

6. Then press download alignment file left bottom above multiple sequence alignment.

7. This downloaded file is needed for the next step making an evolutionary tree.

Step 2: making an evolutionary tree using the downloaded alignment from step 1.

1. Go to: ebi.ac.uk

2. Upload de file from step 1. (below the textbox you can press browse and select the right file)

3. Press submit (blue/green bottom).

4. After a while the evolutionary tree (Phylogram) is shown.

Required material

For the teacher’s guide, email: onderwijs@nbic.nl